3-D VSP: survey design and processing

Qi Zhang, Robert R. Stewart, Zandong Sun

This paper studies the design of 3-D VSP surveys. It also outlines a processing procedure to create 3-D images. Two numerical models (a dipping layer and a dome model) are used to test the effects of variable shot and receiver positions. We find that a high fold can be achieved near the well for realistic shot and receiver distributions. In addition, we evaluate an synthetic data the 3-D VSP coverage of a current 3C-3D seismic survey. A 3-D processing flow which includes NMO correction, muting, binning and stack makes excellent images of the targets.