Converted-wave seismic exploration: Applications

Robert R. Stewart, James E. Gaiser, R. James Brown, Donald C. Lawton

Converted seismic waves (P-to-S on reflection) are being increasingly used to explore for subsurface targets. Rapid advancements in multicomponent acquisition methods and processing techniques have led to numerous applications for P-S images. Uses that have arisen include sand/shale differentiation, carbonate identification, definition of interfaces with low P-wave contrast, anisotropy analysis, imaging through gas zones, shallow high-resolution imaging, and reservoir monitoring. Marine converted-wave analysis using 4-C recordings (a three-component geophone plus a hydrophone) has generated some remarkable images.